Types of Brands
A primary or main brand is the parent brand which can have several types of brands under it. There are mainly four types of brands. Each type is used for specific objectives. These types are: sub-brands and endorsed sub-brands, flanker brands, fighter brands, and prestige brands. Some brands can be a combination of several types. For example, “Emirates” is a strategic brand, a power brand, a master/parent brand, a core brand and – arguably – an iconic brand. www.emirates.com
A sub-brand is a modifier added to the parent or main brand to form a sub-brand that can be positioned on its own. The modifier is too generic in category so it can’t be trademarked separately. An example of this is the Carrefour brand. Carrefour is the parent brand of hypermarkets. It has several sub-brands. Carrefour Planet is a sub-brand of hypermarkets with user friendly services, such as, nursery, snack areas, cooking classes and lower carbon footprint. Carrefour market is a sub-brand of supermarkets. Carrefour express is markets of a specific size. Carrefour contact is smaller convenience stores in cities and rural areas. Carrefour Mountain is convenience stores in mountains, sports areas, and resorts. Carrefour city is in urban areas. And finally Carrefour City CAFÉ is food to eat in or take away. www.carrefour.com
When the parent brand appears with the sub-brand, which itself is a trademarked brand is called an Endorsed Sub-brand. Famous examples include: Nestle & Kitkat, Polo & Ralph Lauren, Hilton, and Marriott Hotels. The Marriott brand includes several endorsed sub-brands, such as, Courtyard Marriott, SpringHill Suites Marriott, FairField Inn & Suites Marriott, Residence Inn Marriott, ExecuStay Marriott, TownePlace Suites Marriott, and AC Hotels Marriott. www.marriott.com
When a new brand is introduced into a product category by a company that already has an existing brand in that market, it is called a Flanker brand. A flanker brand can be used to attract a different market segment without harming the existing brand. It increases retail shelf space. It provides a variety to customers who would like to switch and it responds to competition. Some examples include Procter & Gamble’s famous main brand Tide, which is targeting youth and is a very cheerful brand. Flanker brands include Cheer (bright Clean) for those who love to do laundry and Dreft (Gentle As A Mother’s Touch) for baby care. www.pg.com
When a brand is launched specifically to fight and eliminate low price competitors while protecting the premium price offering, that is called a fighter brand. It is also a form of a flanker brand. Examples include: Intel Pentium which is the main premium brand. A cheaper brand was introduced called Intel Celeron to fight off AMD K6 MMX Enhanced Processor brand. Another example is Kodak Gold which is the main premium brand. A cheaper brand was introduced called Kodak Fun Time to fight off Fuji Color films. www.intel.com
A Prestige Brand (product) represents notable accomplishment(s), creates desired associations with the primary brand, and is also referred to as “Silver Bullet”. Examples include Lexus from Toyota, Infinity from Nissan, and Razr from Motorola.